What Can Colostrum Do for Me?

ColostrumBenefitsWhat Is Colostrum Good For? Why Is
It the Most Important Nutrient for the Prevention of Chronic Disease?
Excerpts from the book: ‘Peptide Immunotherapy, COLOSTRUM, A physicians Reference Guide’ By
Andrew M. Keech, PhD with contributions from Michail V. Borissenko BS, MS, Steven Bock, MD, Kenneth
J. Frank, MD
The first and foremost thing that must be understood about colostrum is what it isn’t, namely that
colostrum is not a medication.
Colostrum, our first food of life, is naturally designed to maintain health and prevent disease rather than
cure a disease that you already may have. To make an analogy, it’s better to close the barn door before
the horse runs out than after it already has. So what does it do for us as adults or for children older than
babies? Colostrum is incredibly effective at shutting down the cause of most disease and infection; when
this occurs our body can then work to repair and rebuild the damage and allow us to enjoy radiant and
robust health.
Gut Health: The Key to Health
Colostrum is an amazing cornucopia of everything we need to maintain a healthy, functional
gastrointestinal tract, which is the key to good health in general. Many diseases have their origins in the
gut, and the proper absorption of nutrients is key to maintaining the body in top running condition. One of
the primary functions, if not the primary function, of colostrum is gut health. The condition of our
gastrointestinal tract—the mouth, the esophagus, the stomach, and the large and small intestines—is our
most important health concern due to the amount of potentially harmful material that passes through it
and the fact that many, if not most, diseases originate in the gut in one way or another. Yet gut health is
mostly ignored unless we are suffering from diarrhea, indigestion, or other GI problems. We don’t like to
think about our digestive processes—improving our sex life or removing wrinkles on our skin is much
more interesting.
When the proportion of beneficial bacteria in our intestines outnumbers the harmful bacteria, our
intestines are said to be in a state of orthobiosis, a term meaning “in balance” coined by Elie Metchnikoff.
When that proportion is out of balance for some reason and the harmful bacteria predominate, we are in a
state of dysbiosis, or imbalance. Dysbiosis has a number of harmful consequences, including leaky gut
syndrome where the permeability of the gut lining is increased so that toxins and pathogens normally
excluded from passing through the gut lining now move freely into the body, which can cause or
contribute to a multitude of diseases. Many autoimmune conditions, such as Crohn’s disease and
rheumatoid arthritis, and most food allergies can be traced to leaky gut syndrome. There are many other
causes of leaky gut in addition to dysbiosis, including alcoholism, taking non-steroidal anti-inflammatory
drugs (NSAIDs), aging, and excessive amounts of toxins in the gut. Whatever the cause, leaky gut can
have serious, even life-threatening, consequences.
Colostrum is the best remedy known for all-around gut health. Colostrum restores leaky gut to normal
permeability levels.1
It contains growth factors and hormones to help repair damage to the intestinal
lining, including damage caused by NSAIDS and other medications, and restore gut integrity.5,6,7 It
contains massive doses of immunoglobulins that help control harmful bacteria and fungi, such as
Candida, in order to restore orthobiosis. It has been clinically proven to control such harmful bacteria as
H. pylori,8,9 which cause ulcers, and many other bacteria. Colostrum has also been shown to increase the
surface area of the intestinal lining, improving the absorption of nutrients.10,11,12 And there are no known
side effects from using colostrum.
Leaky Gut Syndrome (LGS) or Intestinal Permeability
Leaky gut syndrome is the name given to a very common health disorder in which the intestinal lining is
more permeable than normal. The abnormally large spaces present between the cells of the gut wall
allow the entry of viruses, bacteria, fungi, and other toxic material into the bloodstream. Leaky gut
syndrome is at least as common as all the immune system diseases combined. Basically, it is caused by
infection and the attendant inflammation of the gut lining. The infection and inflammation can be brought
about by any of the following:
 Antibiotic use—leads to the overgrowth of abnormal bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract
 NSAIDs (pain medications)
 Prescription pain medications
 Gastrointestinal infections
 Alcohol
 Genetically modified foods
 Foods contaminated by parasites
 Foods contaminated by bacteria, such as E. coli and salmonella
 Chemicals (including dyes and preservatives) in fermented and processed foods
 Prescription corticosteroids
 Wheat proteins, acidic beverages
 Pesticides, food preservatives, environmental toxins, etc.
 An abundance of highly refined sugars and other carbohydrates in your diet (e.g., candy, cookies, soft
drinks, white bread, pasta)

LGS damages the protective coating of antibodies of the immunoglobin A (IgA) family normally present in
a healthy gut.13 Because IgA helps us ward off infections, leaky gut problems make us less resistant to
viruses, bacteria, parasites, and Candida.14,15 These microbes are then able to invade the bloodstream
and colonize almost any body tissue or organ, thereby causing disease. LGS also creates a long list of
mineral deficiencies because the various carrier proteins needed to transport minerals from the intestine
to the blood are damaged by the inflammation process.16 For example, magnesium deficiency is a very
common finding in conditions like fibromyalgia, despite high magnesium intake through diet and
supplementation. If the carrier protein for magnesium is damaged, it doesn’t matter how much of the
mineral you take; it will not get into the body where it is needed. Similarly, the body can be deprived of
zinc because of poor intestinal absorption, often resulting in hair loss. Copper deficiency can occur in an
identical way, leading to high blood cholesterol levels and osteoarthritis. In addition, when calcium, boron,
silicon, and manganese are not absorbed into the bloodstream, bone problems develop. Bloating,
cramps, and gas are common ailments associated with a leaky gut. Eventually, however, nutritional
deficiencies can also lead to systemic complaints like fatigue, headaches, memory loss, poor
concentration, or irritability.17
High intestinal permeability is a normal feature of newborn gut ecology. Colostrum functions to reduce
inflammation, protect against irritation from toxins, and check any potential infection, while promoting
epithelial growth and repair. This combination of effects quickly reduces permeability, preventing toxins,
irritants, allergens, and infectious agents from entering body tissues. A number of serious health
syndromes are now known to be associated with abnormally increased gut permeability. These include all
auto-immune diseases including Crohn’s disease, diabetes, autism, lupus, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer’s,
Parkinson’s, arthritis, cholera, Salmonella and E. coli infection, HIV, arthritis, chronic fatigue syndrome,
hepatitis, cystic fibrosis, alcoholism, muscular dystrophy, fibromyalgia, and scleroderma, asthma, and
allergies. Research shows that colostrum can correct this leaky gut syndrome with its unique combination
of immune factors and growth stimulators, which includes epithelial growth factors. In fact, research has
shown that colostrum is the single most effective agent for correcting leaky gut syndrome. Of course,
other factors can help, too. These include friendly bacterial flora, folic acid, vitamin B12, and aloe. In
addition, optimal nutrition should be ensured with a potent, broad-spectrum multi-vitamin and mineral
supplementation program, high fiber and natural enzyme intake with many raw fruits and vegetables, and
steamed vegetables and greens in the diet. Avoiding refined foods, sugar, alcohol, caffeine, chemical
additives, and tobacco is also crucial.
Colostrum also promotes re-colonization of the bowel by friendly flora. These beneficial organisms help
digest our food so that more nutritional value is available from the same diet and supplements. They also
enhance nutrient absorption, feed epithelial tissue, produce bulk for healthier elimination of wastes,
produce B vitamins, and prevent infection and disease. When colostrum normalizes this gut ecology,
assimilation of nutrients is also enhanced. This means that other dietary, nutritional, herbal, homeopathic,
and lifestyle interventions work better too.
Immune Supplementation of the Gut
Local protection in the form of immune supplementation with bovine colostrum antibodies has shown to
be an effective means of providing local protection to the GI tract against disease. Bovine immunoglobulin
in the form of specific antibody has been shown to be effective against various enteric infectious
diseases. In trials it has been successfully shown that specific antibodies in bovine colostrum are effective
against both enteropathic and enterotoxic Escherichia coli, Cryptosporidium parvum, rotavirus, and
Shigella flexneri. 169,166,169,171,172,173,174
Clinical research by Dr. David Tyrell in England in 1980193 revealed that a high percentage of the
antibodies and immunoglobulins present in colostrum are believed not to be absorbed but remain in the
intestinal tract where they attack disease-causing organisms before they penetrate the body and cause
disease. The remainder is believed to be absorbed and distributed to assist in our internal defense
processes. It is this combination of actions that is believed to make colostrum so unique and effective as
an oral supplement.
“Studies with human volunteers found that the preservation of the biological activity of IgG
(Immunoglobulin), in the digestive secretions of adults receiving bovine colostrum orally, indicates
passive enteral (intestinal) [JC1] immunization for the prevention and treatment of acute intestinal
diseases…”
– Dr. L.B. Khazenson, Journal of Microbial and Epidemiological Immunobiology7
Autoimmune Conditions
Autoimmune conditions are serious diseases in which the body actually begins to make antibodies
against itself, often for no clear reason. Colostrum, and Proline-rich Polypeptides (PRPs) specifically,
have been shown to be of benefit in a number of autoimmune conditions,77 such as multiple sclerosis,78
rheumatoid arthritis,79 asthma,81 systemic lupus erythematosus,83 several experimental autoimmune
responses to red blood cells,84 and hemolytic anemia.85 Chemokines (chemo attractants that attract
immune cells to a site) and chemokine receptors have been implicated in a number of autoimmune
conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, allograft rejection, systemic lupus
erythematosus, psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, lichen planus, and graft-vs.-host disease. Expression of
chemokines by endothelial cells of the blood vessels appears to be an important step in the development
of these diseases. Antagonists of chemokine-chemokine receptor interactions alleviate the symptoms of
many of these diseases in animal models.86,87 This may suggest a role that PRPs play in the relief of
autoimmune conditions.
Autism
Autism is an early-onset biological disorder that causes severe deficits of higher mental functions, as well
as behavioral manifestations. There is no single, clear-cut cause and no complete cure for autism.88
Causally speaking, immune factors, neurochemical factors, antibiotics,89 genetic susceptibility factors,
and environmental factors (such as microbial infections and chemical toxicity) have been implicated.
Autism is a very complex, multifactorial disorder that may include autoimmunity.90 However, immune
therapies, such as PRPs and colostrum, have been of benefit in some cases.91
Diabetes
Both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes can express autoimmune characteristics.68,69,70,71 In a diabetic person,
at some time in the body autoimmune antibodies against pancreatic beta-cells were created. These
antibodies interfere with beta-cell production of insulin. This can cause an unstable production of insulin
and the inability of the body to regulate blood sugars.72 Type 1, or juvenile onset diabetes, can also be
considered an autoimmune disease.73
Tests at UCLA and Stanford University showed that a protein called GAD, found in cow’s milk, can trigger
an allergic response that damages the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas.74 Without insulin, the body
is unable to use glucose for energy, so it is forced to burn fat instead. This severe metabolic imbalance
can lead to a dangerous condition called diabetic coma. Type 1 diabetes seems to occur most often in
children who did not receive colostrum at birth or were not breast-fed for long. The immune factors in
colostrum increased the tolerance for GAD, preventing the allergic response.75 Once an individual has
developed Type 1 diabetes, the treatment options are very limited. Generally, the condition is controlled
with a combination of dietary restrictions, and daily insulin injections. A 1990 study suggested that
colostrum supplementation would be a very beneficial treatment for diabetics, based on the fact that a key
growth factor, IGF-1, can stimulate glucose utilization. Researchers found that plasma levels of IGF-1
were lower in diabetic patients than in healthy individuals.76 After administering IGF-1 to patients, the
doctors noticed a twofold increase in glucose transport to the muscles. The IGF-1 in colostrum could
painlessly do the job of the daily insulin injections most diabetics now have to endure. Of course, any
change in insulin medication should only be made under a doctor’s supervision.
Autoimmune disease can be loosely defined as a condition where the body’s immune defenses are
turned on itself, or stated in another way, the body cannot distinguish self from non-self. This state is
usually characterized by the synthesis of specific antibodies to proteins that are normally found in bodily
tissues and the mobilization of other aspects of the immune system (e.g., white blood cells and
inflammatory cytokines), which in turn leads to wholesale tissue destruction.
In the specific case of diabetes, this situation is most readily observed in Type 1 diabetes (juvenile
diabetes) where the immune system has attacked and killed the beta-cells that compose the islets of
Langerhans in the pancreas. Individuals with Type 1 diabetes lose the ability to produce insulin and must
be augmented with insulin therapy for the remainder of their lives. Specific auto antibodies can be found
in these individuals along with the activation of natural killer T cells that are normally targeted against
invaders such as viruses. Even when people with Type 1 diabetes are treated with insulin, their
autoimmune dysfunction still remains; more and more studies are being directed at the root cause of
these issues in an effort to improve the overall prognosis of a complete treatment protocol. It is also true
that patients with Type 1 diabetes are more likely to suffer from other autoimmune conditions such as
rheumatoid arthritis or psoriasis. Therefore, if progress is made on the autoimmune front for diabetes,
there will surely be carryover to these other conditions. More recently a great deal of attention has been
paid to Type 2 diabetes, which is most often associated with obesity and inactivity.
New work has shed light on the fact that there is much in common between Types 1 and 2 patients. One
of these areas of commonality is the presence of auto antibodies. This fact alone suggests that on the
many faces of diabetes (Types 1, 1.5, 2, and now 3) there may be a common imprint of immune
dysfunction. And with new revelations linking diabetes with Alzheimer’s disease (so-called Type 3), there
is even more at stake in deriving and understanding and, more importantly, developing new treatment
protocols.
Immune Health
Colostrum is unmatched as an immune system stimulant and modulator. There are numerous “one note”
products lining the shelves of natural food stores that claim to stimulate the immune system. Only
colostrum, however, plays the whole symphony. It is not only able to stimulate the immune system in a
multitude of ways but also has the ability to modulate the immune response, turning it up or down as
needed. No other health food product can claim that.
Colostrum can pass immunity to a wide variety of disease-causing pathogens to you—no shots required!
Colostrum can protect you not only from dangerous bacteria, like Salmonella, Staphylococcus, and
Streptococcus, but it can also protect you against a number of viruses, from colds and flu to HIV, fungi
like Candida, and even protozoan parasites like giardia. Not even antibiotics can deliver that broad
protection.
Our ability to survive in a world full of dangerous pathogens and toxins is dependent upon the ability of
our immune system to neutralize and destroy these potential dangers. To accomplish this, our bodies
have developed many strategies that attack or neutralize dangers in a wide variety of ways. Many of
these are included in colostrum as well because one of the main routes of infection or toxin entry into the
body is through the gut. In fact, no other supplement can come close to colostrum in the variety and
effectiveness of its immune support. Colostrum also provides a potent array of immune factors including
immunoglobulins, cytokines, interferon, lactoferrin, and PRPs. Supplementation of these factors can
dramatically restore immunity, prevent infection, and speed healing and recovery from illness.
Bovine colostrum, in particular, is up to 40 times higher than human colostrum in these immune factors.
Plus, only bovine colostrum contains certain glycoproteins and protease inhibitors that naturally protect
these immune factors from being digested in the intestinal tract. Even so, prolonged exposure to stomach
acids and digestive enzymes destroy most of colostrum’s immune benefits. Swallowing colostrum in a
capsule with an antacid or with a large glass of alkaline, antioxidant water (coral water or electrolysis
water) between meals helps reduce damage and increase effectiveness. But to truly make colostrum
effective, it is best to obtain colostrum that has a protective Liposomal Delivery system. Liposomal micro
encapsulation has been shown to help deliver colostrum intact into the digestive system, and help it
absorb into the blood stream and deliver critical healing components to all of our cells and organs
including crossing into nervous and brain tissue for healing and repair of damaged tissue.
Colostrum is also one of the most potent known sources of methylsulfonylmethane (MSM), which relieves
pain, aids in healing of scar tissue, deters parasites, supports liver detoxification, and helps elimination of
mercury, among its many other functions. MSM, or organic sulfur, is considered the number three mineral
in the body. Colostrum even contains powerful, soil-based organisms, which have been found to provide
tremendous benefits to human health.
According to the Centers for Disease Control, anywhere from 30% to 80% of commercial chickens are
seriously contaminated with Salmonella bacteria.18 ABC TV quoted a government source that reported as
many as 33 million Americans suffer food poisoning every year, and that over 5,000 die.19 Colostrum has
been shown to kill Salmonella, along with other disease-causing bacteria such as Campylobacter, E. coli
(which can kill people when present in contaminated meat supplies), Helicobacter pylori (the main cause
of stomach ulcers), Listeria, and multiple Streptococcus species and Staphylococcus and Clostridium
Difficile (the main cause of hospital-acquired infections). This is good news in light of the increasing
appearance of antibiotic resistant super strains, such as vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
Colostrum has also been found to be effective against Candida albicans.20
Research shows that colostrum prevents and controls infection in multiple ways. First, according to
clinical studies, colostrum has been shown to inhibit attachment of bacteria to the body’s epithelial
(surface) tissue. This is a necessary first step for any infection to take hold. Second, lactoferrin acts as a
powerful natural antimicrobial, antiviral and is very effective against fungus and yeast infections.
Colostrum also imparts passive immunity to many high-risk organisms, including the leading intestinal
killers E. coli and rotavirus. At the same time, immune factors enhance the body’s natural defense against
virtually all pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
Intestinal infections that cause diarrhea can be real killers. Rotavirus, a major cause of diarrhea, is the
world’s leading killer in areas with poor sanitation and contaminated water, but it is also spreading rapidly
due to increased travel and immigration. Clostridium and Shigella are two other major killers linked to
diarrhea. Colostrum neutralizes the toxins produced by Clostridium, the organism linked to botulism.21
Colostrum showed similar results against shigellosis.22 Taking colostrum, along with friendly bacterial
flora, whenever you travel abroad can be a lifesaver.
Infection is becoming increasingly important as a cause of chronic degenerative disease as we
understand more about etiology. Chlamydia pneumonia (an intracellular parasite), for example, may be a
triggering factor in atherosclerosis.23 Researchers now believe that this factor may account for up to 50%
of all heart disease. The best known immune components of colostrum, of course, are the
immunoglobulins, also known as antibodies.24,25,26 Immunoglobulins, part of the adaptive immune system,
are special proteins produced by the body that can specifically bind virtually any bacteria, virus, protein,
peptide, carbohydrate, or cell that the body recognizes as “foreign.” Once the immunoglobulins attach
themselves to the foreign substance, scavenger cells of the immune system can attack and destroy or
neutralize it.
The immunoglobulins in colostrum contribute to its ability to neutralize or kill many bacteria, viruses, fungi,
and even protozoan parasites. The list of pathogens against which colostrum has been shown to be
effective is impressive,27 including such dangerous bacteria as H. pylori28 (implicated in ulcer formation in
the stomach), E. coli29,30 (a natural inhabitant of the GI tract that has a number of very dangerous strains
that can cause severe diarrhea or intestinal bleeding), pertussis,31 cholera,32 and bacterial causes of
severe diarrhea,33,34,35 which can be lethal in those suffering from AIDS and which kill thousands of infants
worldwide every year. It has also been shown to be effective against a number of viruses36 and even
protozoan parasites, such as amoebas,37 which cause dysentery and other GI diseases. This is only one
weapon in colostrum’s great arsenal. It has many other ways of providing protection and modulating our
immune response.
Three proteins found in colostrum—lactoferrin, lysozyme, and lactoperoxidase, part of the so-called
innate immune system—provide non-specific protection against bacteria, viruses, and fungi.38
Lactoferrin is one of the main proteins in colostrum, making up about 6% of the total protein. It is an ironbinding
protein closely related to transferrin, which is a protein that transports free iron in the body. One of
the ways lactoferrin destroys bacteria is by binding free iron, which is needed by many bacteria and fungi,
such as Candida,39 to reproduce. It can prevent the colonization of Haemophilus influenza, the primary
cause of ear and respiratory infections in children, by inactivating its colonization factors.40 Lactoferrin
also has the ability to penetrate the cell walls of bacteria, which allows lysozyme to enter the bacterial
cell, causing them to lyse, or burst.41 It also acts in conjunction with lysozyme to destroy Candida.42
Lactoferrin is a potent destroyer of viruses as well, including cytomegalovirus (can cause birth defects
and death in fetuses),43 HIV (AIDS virus),44 hepatitis B45 and C,46 rotavirus (the main cause of diarrhea in
infants),47 influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus (causes colds in adults48 and severe bronchitis and
pneumonia in children), and herpes simplex types 1 (cold sores) and 2 (genital herpes).49,50
In addition to its antimicrobial role, lactoferrin has other important immune functions. Lactoferrin from
colostrum increases both motility and superoxide production by polymorph nuclear leukocytes (white
blood cells), making them more effective in warding off infections.51 It strongly augments natural killer cell
and lymphokine-activated killer cell cytotoxic activity.52 Lactoferrin is also a required growth factor for
lymphocytes, the principal cell type of the immune system,53 so it acts to stimulate increased activity of
the immune system.
Lactoperoxidase combines with thiocyanate (a sulfur compound) and hydrogen peroxide to form a
bactericidal compound that kills bacteria and viruses nonspecifically as well as degrades various
carcinogens.54,55
Other components of the innate, or non-specific, immune system are also present in colostrum.56 One
important component of this system is the glycoconjugates found in colostrum and milk. Glycoconjugates
are proteins, fats, or complex sugars (oligo and poly saccharides) that have sugar molecules attached to
them. These sugar molecules compete with pathogens for binding sites on the intestinal wall.57,58
Complement,59,60 part of the antigen-antibody system, is also found in colostrum. Complement proteins
help to remove immune complexes, that is, immunoglobulin-antigen complexes, so that they do not
accumulate in the tissues. In addition, there are a number of small proteins and peptides present that are
also part of the innate immune system, such as defensins61 (polypeptides that disrupt bacterial
membranes, killing them), toll-like receptors53,62,63 (pattern recognition detectors that help the immune
system identify new pathogens), and cathelicidin derived antimicrobial peptide53 (another polypeptide that
attacks the membranes of bacteria).
A unique feature of colostrum is its ability to modulate rather than just stimulate, compared to immune
products from plants that only stimulate. Colostrum contains a substance known as PRPs or Colostrinin,
which has the ability to modulate the immune response by either turning up an underactive immune
system or turning down an overactive one.64 PRPs can also induce the growth and differentiation of
resting B lymphocytes,65 an important part of turning on the immune system in response to a threat.
Another way colostrum modulates the immune system is through controlling the production of interleukin-
2 (IL-2), one of the cytokines—small, hormone-like proteins that regulate the intensity and duration of
immune response. By controlling the production of IL-2, colostrum can increase or decrease the activity of
natural killer cells66—specialized lymphocytes whose function is to attack and kill invading pathogens.
Lactoferrin also greatly stimulates the activity of natural killer and other immune cells.67
Heart Disease
We have heard so much in recent years about heart disease and what we can do to prevent it. Diet and
exercise are some of the best weapons we can use to fight this killer, but for many, the immune and
growth factors found in colostrum may be what are needed to win the war.
Altered immunity may be the hidden cause of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. For example,
the American College of Cardiology recently reported that a common type of Chlamydia bacteria has
been associated with arterial plaque formation in over 79% of patients with heart disease.92 Another
recent study concluded that heart disease is the result of immune sensitization to cardiac antigens.93 In
other words, once heart tissue is damaged, the immune system begins creating antibodies which then
cause more harm.
Because heart disease resembles an autoimmune response in this way, colostrum’s PRPs can help limit
the severity of the disease by toning down the immune system’s attack on damaged heart tissue. In
addition, the other immune factors found in colostrum can directly combat the Chlamydia bacteria. Finally,
IGF-1 and GH in colostrum can lower LDL cholesterol while increasing HDL cholesterol
concentrations.94,95,96 Colostrum growth factors promote the repair and regeneration of heart muscle and
the regeneration of new blood vessels for collateral coronary circulation.97 Both milk and colostrum
contain hypotensive factors, called ACE inhibitory peptides (casokinins and lactokinins), which decrease
blood pressure and lower the risk of heart attack and stroke.98,99 The calcium found in milk and colostrum
also contributes to lower blood pressure.100
Influenza
A recent study101 showed the efficacy of a two-month treatment with oral colostrum in the prevention of flu
episodes compared with anti-influenza vaccination. After three months of follow-up, the number of days
with flu was three times higher in the non-colostrum subjects. Colostrum, both in healthy subjects and
high-risk cardiovascular patients, is at least 3 times more effective than vaccination in preventing flu and
is very cost-effective.
Cancer
Colostrum has also been shown to be of benefit against that most feared of diseases, cancer. Numerous
research studies have shown that bovine colostrum prevents the development of cancers, particularly
cancers associated with the gastrointestinal tract, under experimental conditions. More clinical research is
needed to understand colostrum’s role in preventing cancer in vivo, which is, of course, much more
difficult to study.
It has been estimated that one in three people living in Canada and the U.S. will get some form of cancer
during their lifetime. The causes of cancer (or cancers) are multiple. There are, of course, the well-known
carcinogens like nitrates, hydrogenated oils, cigarette smoke, and radiation. Cancerous cells are
continuously being formed and destroyed in almost every human body. The problem comes when a
weakened immune system allows for the cancerous cells to spread and destroy other healthy tissues.
Ironically, chemotherapy, the treatment of choice for many cancers, compromises the body’s natural
immune function, leaving patients susceptible to even more infection.
The benefits of natural immune boosters in the treatment of cancer was first popularized by the 1985
Steven Rosenberg book, Quiet Strides in the War on Cancer.102 Rosenberg had great success with
cancer patients, including one complete cure, by using a treatment that flooded the body with killer
immune cells, as well as chemical messengers called cytokines.103,104 Since Rosenberg’s time, the same
cytokines found uniquely in colostrum (interleukins 1, 6, 10, interferon-g, and lymphokines) have been the
single most researched elements in the search for the cure for cancer.
Colostral lactalbumin has been found to cause the selective death of cancer cells, leaving the surrounding
non-cancerous tissues unaffected. Lactoferrin has similarly been reported to possess anti-cancer activity.
The incredible mix of immune and growth factors in colostrum can inhibit the spread of cancer cells. And if
viruses are involved in either the initiation or the spread of cancer, colostrum could prove to be one of the
best ways to prevent the disease in the first place.
PRPs have been shown to be a potent placental antiangiogenic hormone that prevents
neovascularization105 (see also angiogenesis). Tumor cells engineered to express high levels of PRPs
show markedly reduced growth rates as tumors in mice.106 The protein also acts on human endothelial
cells.107 It has been shown that the use of adenovirus vectors expressing PRPs can lead to complete
tumor rejection and prolonged survival in a high proportion of animals bearing transplanted mouse
B16F10 melanoma cells.108,109,110,111
A series of studies done in Japan on animal models of cancer showed in every case that lactoferrin either
prevented the cancer from taking hold or prevented metastasis from established tumors.112,113,114,115
Lactoferrin has also been shown to boost the cytotoxic activity of natural killer cells against blood and
breast epithelial tumor cell lines116,117 and to inhibit the growth of breast cancer cells.118
One study has shown that a number of human cancers become more sensitive to chemotherapy in the
presence of epidermal growth factor, one of the growth factors present in colostrum. 119
What colostrum does not do in regard to cancer is make it worse. There have been some stories put out
that the growth factors in colostrum can cause cancers to grow faster, but these rumors are unfounded
and not backed by research.120
AIDS (HIV)
Several unpleasant features make HIV one of the most frightening viruses to catch. First of all, the virus
mutates so quickly that the body cannot produce an antibody to destroy it. Secondly, how can we fight off
a virus that directly targets the body’s main defense—the immune system? In fact, it is not finally HIV
itself that poses the deadly threat associated with the AIDS disease. Rather, HIV attacks the immune
system, rendering it extremely vulnerable to other invaders. In cases of severe immune damage, a simple
cold or flu can be deadly. In a 1995 article in Scientific American, researchers concluded that “traditional”
disease fighting methods (vaccines, for example) are just not effective in fighting HIV. Instead, they
recommend reducing the viral level in the body and stimulating the body’s natural immune response to
have the best chance against the tricky virus.121
Another study122 indicates that the colostral immune factor lactoferrin is one of the best ways to reduce
viral levels in the body. For example, lactoferrin inhibited HIV infection of certain body cells. In addition,
the immune factor was able to completely block Cytomegalovirus infection. This study also concluded that
bovine lactoferrin was up to 2.5 times more potent than human lactoferrin.
Many of the immune factors in colostrum also help to stimulate or “jump-start” a weakened immune
system. Lactoferrin, for example, is responsible for “turning on” the immune system in newborn babies
and has been proven to do the same thing for adult AIDS patients. In addition, colostrum’s growth factors
also boost the body’s immune function. Clinical studies have shown that HIV positive patients who were
treated with certain growth factors (in particular growth hormone or IGF-1) were much less likely to
develop full-blown AIDS than were patients who received different treatments.123
Growth factors also play an important role in preventing AIDS-associated wasting, or severe weight loss.
Wasting occurs when the AIDS infected body begins using muscle for energy. Treatment with growth
hormone and IGF-1 showed an increase in lean muscle mass among AIDS patients. This increase in
muscle mass is one of the main keys to improving the quality of life of AIDS sufferers. Mass wasting is
most often brought about by severe, chronic diarrhea, one of the first symptoms of AIDS. Cryptosporidium
and rotavirus take advantage of the weakened immune system, causing acute diarrhea. This results in a
loss of vital nutrients and fluids and also depletes much of the supply of intestinal antibodies, leaving the
sufferer even more susceptible to dangerous pathogens. Because it is one of the most serious, potentially
fatal problems that AIDS sufferers face, much of the research thus far has focused on finding a way to
prevent diarrhea. One study124 showed that out of 37 immune-deficient patients with chronic diarrhea,
72.4% experienced a significant improvement with the use of immunoglobulins from colostrum. Over half
of the patients remained diarrhea free for at least four weeks after the treatment. A 1990 study stated that
colostrum immunoglobulins have been able to treat opportunistic, diarrhea-causing infections in AIDS
patients where no other treatment was effective.125 At the very least, colostrum will benefit the AIDS
patient by prolonging and greatly improving the quality of life.
Athletic Use
But wait, that’s not all. Athletes love colostrum because the growth factors in it help burn fat while building
lean muscle. Colostrum builds strength and shortens recovery time. It also protects athletes from getting
sick when at their most vulnerable following a vigorous workout when the immune system is temporarily
disabled. Some athletes and trainers have even labeled colostrum as the “new creatine.”126
In the 2000 and 2004 Summer Olympics, Australian athletes stunned the world by earning more medals
than China, a nation with over 100 times as many people and potential athletes. What was their secret?
Colostrum!
Fitness
Studies are now showing significant gains in fitness with colostrum supplementation. A widely reported
study in Australia found a 20% increase in strength, stamina, and shortened recovery time for both soccer
players and cyclists. Many body builders and fitness experts say colostrum works better than any other
legal substance they ever experienced.
The growth factors found in colostrum are now known to enhance muscle tone, burn off body fat, promote
skin elasticity, and increase bone density. TgF-alpha and -beta (transforming growth factors) stimulate
production and repair of RNA and DNA, as well as repair of damaged muscle fibers in athletes. EGF
(epithelial growth factor) stimulates enhanced skin healing. IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor 1) is able to
“promote muscle growth by itself,” according to Muscle and Fitness associate editor Steve Schwade.
Bovine IGF-1 is effective in humans, differing in its structure by only 3 out of 67 amino acids, and bovine
colostrum is found to be even higher in IGF-1 than human colostrum. The growth factors in colostrum
stimulate protein synthesis and slow protein breakdown, resulting in increased lean muscle mass. At the
same time, they shift the metabolism from burning carbohydrates to burning more fats.
Olympic skiers taking colostrum experienced less fatigue and improved their performance in a placebocontrolled
study in Finland. They also showed only half the level of blood creatine-kinase, a marker of
muscle injury, compared to placebo control. Another Finnish study confirmed that athletes taking
colostrum during strength and speed training did in fact show increased blood serum concentrations of
IGF-1.126
Overall, colostrum is considered as powerful as steroids at generating increased muscle mass when used
in conjunction with exercise, but without the risks and side effects. Studies have shown that the growth
factors present in colostrum increase between 2,500% to 4,000% (from
2–5 ng/mg to 50–200 ng/mg) with exposure to acidity. To gain the maximum fitness benefits from
colostrum, take it in powder form (empty the capsule in your mouth or onto food) toward the end of a meal
or 45 minutes before a physical workout session with a protein drink. Friendly flora, which naturally
promotes a healthy acidity level in the colon, may also enhance the benefits of colostrum.
Athletic Immune Stress
Strenuous exercise associated with athletic training and competition places a tremendous strain on body
systems, including the immune system. Studies on the effects of extreme exercise on the immune system
have shown profound immune system changes following marathon runs or other forms of athletic
performance that push the body to the limit. One study on marathon runners showed that white blood cell
counts decreased dramatically after a three-hour run but returned to normal levels within 21 hours.128
Another study on marathoners showed decreased natural killer cell activity after a race.129,129 This would
suggest that athletes who push themselves to their limits are much more susceptible to infectious
diseases, such as upper respiratory infections, which is indeed borne out by research.130 Combined with
proper nutrition and rest, colostrum helps prevent this. Colostrum, with its growth and immune factors,
cuts recovery time and boosts immune function, reducing the susceptibility of athletes to infection after
exercise,131 and it can help heal “leaky gut” in athletes, which can be caused by protein
supplementation.132 Colostrum also speeds the healing of muscle, tendon, and ligament injuries. Other
studies on athletes have shown that colostrum can decrease recovery times and increase anaerobic
power.133,134,135 Colostrum supplementation also builds lean muscle tissue and burns fat.136
The International Olympic Committee (IOC) ruled colostrum to be an acceptable supplement. In
recognition of colostrum’s natural ability to improve an athlete’s health and physical condition, the IOC
ruled that colostrum is an acceptable supplement. They based their decision on the fact that although
colostrum supplementation stimulates the production of IGF-1 in the body, the IGF-1 in colostrum is not
actually absorbed but digested.137,138 So colostrum emerges as an ideal supplement for athletes, whether
they are Olympic athletes or weekend warriors. It builds lean muscle, burns fat, protects from disease,
and heals the leaky gut condition often associated with athletic training and performance.
Healing, Tissue Repair, and Injury Recovery
Colostrum has been known for its healing abilities since earliest times, being mentioned in Egyptian
hieroglyphic texts for its healing properties[JC3] . Skin cells have receptors for growth hormone and IGF-
1, showing that they have the ability to react directly to growth hormone stimulation.157 IGF-II, also found
in colostrum, plays a similar role.158 Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and epithelial growth factor (EGF),
both found in colostrum, are important in healing skin wounds.159, 160 Burns suppress the levels of IGF-1 in
the affected area,161 which explains why colostrum, with its high concentration of IGF-1, is excellent for
burn recovery.
The growth factors in colostrum also accelerate the healing of muscle, tendon, and ligament injuries, such
as are commonly experienced by athletes.162,163,164,165 Colostrum’s growth factors stimulate regeneration
and repair of muscle, bone, cartilage, skin, collagen, and nerve tissues, as well as RNA and DNA. This
not only means faster, more complete recovery from injury and illness. It is also how colostrum stimulates
age-erasing effects.
With prolonged use, the skin becomes more youthful, while age-spots and liver spots disappear. Sexual
function is enhanced and bone density increases. Research published in the New England Journal of
Medicine166 has shown that transforming growth factor (TGF-b) found in colostrum is also produced by
osteoblasts, the cells that build bone. TgF-b was found to dramatically increase cell apoptosis
(programmed cell death) among osteoclasts, the cells responsible for breaking down and reabsorbing
bone. In addition to colostrum, microcrystalline hydroxyapatite and DHEA are proven to increase bone
density.
Colostrum also helps to balance blood sugar and replenish neurotransmitters, resulting in better alertness
and concentration, while enhancing mood. Both serotonin and dopamine are released in greater
quantities, while their re-uptake is prolonged, allowing each molecule to work longer and more efficiently.
For this reason, it is generally best to take colostrum in the morning and again sometime before about
4:00 p.m. (e.g., around lunchtime or a couple hours after).
Weight Loss
Whole, first milking colostrum contains leptin (approximately 50 ng/g). Leptin, discovered in 1994, derives
its name from the Greek word leptos, meaning thin. This is a polypeptide hormone produced in adipose
and many other tissues with many different roles related to the inhibition of food intake and stimulation of
energy expenditure. In embryology, its levels are associated with fertility and reproductive maturity in
many species. There are several additional hormonal roles in the adult including satiety, adiposity, and
metabolism. Higher levels of leptin as a neurotransmitter can accelerate the communication signals to
stop eating sooner.
Colostrum also contains insulin-like growth factors. IGF-1 is the predominant of these and is in fact the
real growth hormone, not GH which only stimulates the liver to produce IGF-1. IGF-1 is necessary to
produce new cells. It stimulates tissue repair and recovery and lean muscle growth, increasing strength
and endurance. But it also stops the digestion of our own muscle tissue to balance blood glucose to the
brain in times of fast (between meals), and stimulates the utilization of stored body fats for fuel. The only
supplementation for IGF-1 hormone is colostrum. The only other way to stimulate more hormone
production is via weight training and endurance exercise programs. Colostrum has shown it can
significantly enhance our body physiology and therefore improve our appearance and vitality.
To better understand colostrum’s growth factors regarding weight loss, read the sections “Athletic
Performance” and “Healing, Tissue Repair, and Injury Recovery.”
Anti-Aging
Getting a little long in the tooth? Then colostrum is for you. Colostrum has many antioxidant and antiaging
components to keep you in top shape longer. It helps keep skin looking young and healthy. It
removes dangerous free oxygen radicals, metabolic waste products that can cause you to age more
rapidly. It supplies us with growth factors and other important substances that normally decline with age,
leading to cell senescence and accelerated aging. Oxidation is the normal metabolism of nutrients in the
body. As we age, we are less able to remove the byproducts of metabolism resulting in high levels of
reactive oxygen species (ROS), which results in oxidative stress in the tissues.
What this means to us is rapid aging; damage to DNA, proteins, and lipids; and cancer and degenerative
diseases, including arthritis.139,140,141 Colostrum can help clean up these waste products and counteract
their negative effects on the body. It contains a number of powerful antioxidants, including glutathione, the
most powerful antioxidant known, and its chemical precursors.142 Glutathione itself is not absorbed
through the intestinal wall, but the glutathione in colostrum still plays a major role in maintaining
gastrointestinal health. The precursors, cystine, glycine, and glutamic acid, are absorbed and contribute
to glutathione production in the body. Colostrum reduces respiratory burst output in white blood cells
(polymorpho nuclear leukocytes), which has both an antioxidant and an anti-inflammatory effect.143,144
PRPs contribute to the antioxidant effect of colostrum by down regulating lipid per oxidation, inhibiting
glutathione depletion, and reducing intracellular levels of ROS (reactive oxygen species).145 Lactoferrin
also has antioxidant properties, preventing lipid peroxidation.146 Haemopexin is a protein found in milk
and colostrum147 that strongly binds haem, a low molecular weight form of iron that takes part in oxidative
reactions in tissues. Haemopexin can inhibit these reactions by up to 90%.148
Detoxification
Traditionally, detoxification requires taking a powerful herbal concoction that causes the body to dump
fluids, thus flushing the system of impurities and toxins.
From the point of view of colostrum, however, this is a limited and potentially dangerous concept of
detoxification that puts unneeded stress on the body and can do more harm than good. Colostrum
detoxifies the body beginning in the gastrointestinal tract in a much healthier and more efficacious
manner. Colostrum inhibits or destroys harmful pathogens that can colonize the gut and cause major
health problems, such as Helicobacter pylori, the main cause of gastric and duodenal ulcers;149,150,151,152
Candida albicans, a fungus that can overgrow the intestines, forcing out beneficial bacteria;153 and many
other pathogens,154,155 while promoting the growth of beneficial bacterial colonies. Colostrum also acts to
heal the damage to the intestinal lining caused by the pathogens and toxins that can accumulate there.
This prevents pathogens and toxins from entering the body and restores normal gut functioning.
Colostrum also helps protect and heal both the liver and the pancreas from the effects of toxins in the
body by helping to remove dangerous toxins and by stimulating these organs to replace damaged
tissue.156,157
Topical Applications
Colostrum, mixed into a paste with water, helps the body heal injuries such as burns, cuts, abrasions,
ulcers, acne, and even surgical wounds with topical application.159,167 Topical use in the mouth helps
relieve gingivitis, canker sores, and sensitive teeth and speeds recovery from dental work. It can be used
in enemas and douches for help in eliminating candida albicans and other infections.
The Perfect Food
Colostrum is the perfect food, combining all the crucial immune and growth factors in the exact synergistic
combination necessary to promote life. For many it is considered the ideal alternative to hundreds of
pharmaceutical drugs, from antibiotics to steroids. Research on colostrum has documented benefits from
dosages in the range of 2 to 60 grams per day with no known contraindications, side effects or allergic
reactions reported over thousands of years of use. It is even safe for those with lactose intolerance. Some
experts recommend taking it in a divided dose (at least 1 gram twice a day) with antioxidant water on an
empty stomach for maximum benefits.
Here is a partial list of the benefits of colostrum:
Anabolic activity
Anti aging
Antifungal
Anti-inflammatory
Antimicrobial
Antiviral
Auto immune disease (eliminating cause)
Assimilation
Athletic performance
Blood pressure
Blood sugar (glucose regulator)
Body building
Bone density
Cancer
Cholesterol
Cytokines
Colds
Diet
Diabetes
Digestion
Elimination
Endurance
Epithelial growth factor (EGF)
Fat reduction and utilization
Flu prevention and reduction of infections
Friendly flora growth
Gut health
Heart health
Increased lean muscle mass
Infections (prevention and elimination)
Insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1)
Immunity
Immunologist
Interferons
Interleukins-1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 13, 16, 18
Intestinal permeability or leaky gut syndrome
Joint repair
Lactoferrin
methylsulfonylmethane (MSM)
Muscle repair
Muscle tone
Mobility
Nutrient absorption
Pain
Prevention
Proline-rich Polypeptide (PRP) immune modulation and antiviral activity
Recovery time
Retinoic acids
Skin elasticity
Soil-based organisms
Sports performance
Strength
Stamina
Tissue repair and growth
Transforming growth factors alpha and beta (TgF-a and TgF-b)
Weight loss
Wound healing
Following is a list of some of the major conditions that your body may be able to better heal or prevent
with colostrum:
Alcoholism
Allergies
ALS (Lou Gehrig’s disease)
Anemia
Arthritis
Atherosclerosis
Autoimmune conditions
Asthma
Bacterial infection
Bone marrow transplant
Bone density
Bullous Pemphigoid
Campylobacter
Cancer
Candida albicans
Chlamydia
Cholera
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFIDS)
Crohn’s disease
Clostridium Difficile
Cystic fibrosis
Diarrhea (from all known pathogenic sources)
Dysbiosis
Epstein Barr virus (EBV)
E. coli
Fibromyalgia
Food poisoning
Fungal infection
Gut and stomach infections
Guillain-Barré Syndrome
Heart disease
Helicobacter pylori
Hepatitis
Herpes virus
HIV
Hormonal balance
Influenza
Intestinal parasites
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
Joint repair
Kawasaki Syndrome
Leaky Gut Syndrome
Listeria
Lupus
Multiple Sclerosis
Muscular Dystrophy
Myasthenia gravis
Neutropenia
Osteoporosis
Overweight
Premature birth
Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)
Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)
Rotavirus
Osteo Arthritis
Osteoporosis
Salmonella
Scleroderma
Shigella
Staphylococcus aureus
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)
Thrombocytopenia
Ulcers
Viral infection
Yeast infection
Colostrum as Functional Food
Functional foods are defined as those foods that have potential healthful benefits beyond the traditional
nutrients they may contain. As such, colostrum has great potential as a functional food that can be easily
combined with other healthful food products. Whole colostrum or various components of colostrum show
great promise as an additive to infant formulas, for example, as well as other dairy products, such as
yogurt. To obtain colostrum’s IgF-1 growth factor benefits such as anti-aging, athletic recovery, lean
muscle growth and retention, and recovery from injuries, it is best to use a colostrum powder mixed into a
protein shake. For other benefits, including immunity, colostrum is most effective when in a protective
capsule and taken on an empty stomach. Colostrum capsules and Liposomal enhanced delivery make
colostrum’s unique healing components up to 1,500% more bioavailable and therefore much more
effective.

Summary
Mankind was never designed to eat processed foods, breathe polluted air, drink polluted water, or lead
sedentary lives. Colostrum can help us restore some of our lost balance. It has shown great promise, for
example, in treating autoimmune disorders, which can be traced back to leaky gut and nutritional or
environmental imbalances. Colostrum can help repair the damage we do to our gastrointestinal tracts
from taking antibiotics as well as pain and other medications, drinking alcohol and acidic beverages, and
eating processed, fried, and unhealthy foods. It can help each and every one of us to lead a happier and
healthier life.

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human liver cells by hepatitis C virus while transferrin does not.
47. Superti F, Ammendolia MG, Valenti P, Seganti L. Anti-rotaviral activity of milk proteins: lactoferrin
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lactoglobulin, apo-lactoferrin (iron-free), and iron saturated lactoferrin were compared to that of mucin,
which has known anti¬rotaviral activity. Beta lactoglobulin and both forms of lactoferrin showed antirotaviral
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52. Shau H, Kim A, Golub SH. Modulation of natural killer and lymphokine-activated killer cell
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received 0.2% lactoferrin solutions developed carcinomas. Rats that received a stronger dose of
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Sport, 5(2):65–79 (2002). Supplementation with colostrum did not increase serum IGF-I levels or initial
performance, but it did significantly improve performance in a second round of performance.
134. Coombes JS, Conacher M, Austen SK, Marshall PA. Dose effects of oral bovine colostrum on
physical work capacity in cyclists. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(7):1184–1188 (2002).
Colostrum supplementation produced a slight but significant increase in performance in competitive
cyclists.
135. Hofman Z, Smeets R, Verlaan G, Lugt R, Verstappen PA. The effect of bovine colostrum
supplementation on exercise performance in elite field hockey players. International Journal of Sports
Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 12(4):461–469 (2002). Colostrum supplementation improved sprint
performance of field hockey players compared to whey supplementation.
136. Antonio J, Sanders MS, Van Gammeren D. The effects of bovine colostrum supplementation on
body composition and exercise performance in active men and women. Nutrition, 17(3):243–247 (2001).
Colostrum supplementation produced a significant increase in lean body mass compared to whey
supplementation.
137. Mero A, Miikkulainen H, Riski J, Pakkanen R, Aalto J, Takala T. Effects of bovine colostrum
supplementation on serum IGF-I, IgG, hormone, and saliva IgA during training. Journal of Applied
Physiology, 83(4):1144–1151 (1997). Colostrum supplementation increases levels of IGF-I in athletes
during strength and speed training.
138. Mero A, Kahkonen J, Nykanen T, Parviainen T, Jokinen I, Takala T, Nikula T, Rasi S, Leppaluoto
J. IGF-I, IgA, and IgG responses to bovine colostrum supplementation during training. Journal of Applied
Physiology, 93(2):732–739 (2002). Although colostrum supplementation increases IGF-I levels in the
blood, this increase is not due to absorption of the IGF-I from colostrum.
139. Cross CE, Halliwell B, Borish ET, Pryor WA, Ames BN, Saul RL, McCord JM, Harman D. Oxygen
radicals and human disease. Annals of Internal Medicine, 107(4):526–545 (1987). Oxygen free radicals,
the by-products of normal metabolism, have been implicated in disease processes ranging from
carcinogenesis to aging, emphasizing the importance of antioxidants in combating these conditions.
140. Ames BN, Shigenaga MK, Hagen TM. Oxidants, antioxidants, and the degenerative diseases of
aging. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 90(17):7915–7922 (1993). Oxidant byproducts
of metabolism cause significant damage to DNA, proteins and lipids. This damage results in
aging and the degenerative diseases associated with aging, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease,
immune system decline, brain dysfunction, and cataracts. Antioxidant defenses against these diseases
decline with age, necessitating the supplementation of antioxidants in the diet.
141. Kurz DJ, Decary S, Hong Y, Trivier E, Akhmedov A. Erusalimsky JD. Chronic oxidative stress
compromises telomere integrity and accelerates the onset of senescence in human endothelial cells.
Journal of Cell Science I, 17:2417–2426 (2004). Oxidative stress due to the buildup of oxidization byproducts
has been linked to the onset of cell senescence in blood vessel lining cells by disrupting
telomere integrity. Telomeres are the “tails” of the chromosomes, the length of which determine the
number of cell divisions a cell can undergo before reaching its limit. Glutathione, a powerful natural
antioxidant, is crucial in maintaining telomere integrity.
142. Borissenko M. Glutathione: A powerful anti-oxidant found in colostrum. NZMP, August 2002. Both
glutathione and its chemical predecessors are present in large quantities in colostrum. As glutathione is
not absorbed directly, glutathione production in the body can only be accomplished by supplementation
with its antecedents, cystine, glycine and glutamic acid, all of which are abundant in colostrum.
143. Buescher ES, McIlheran SM. Antioxidant properties of human colostrum. Pediatric Research,
24(1):14–19 (1988). Colostrum reduces ferricytochrome C in polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs) and
also disrupts other metabolic and enzymatic activities of PMNs which are crucial in PMN respiratory burst
mediation of acute inflammation, showing that colostrum is a powerful antioxidant.
144. Buescher ES, McIlheran SM. Colostral antioxidants: Separation and characterization of two
activities in human colostrum. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 14(1):47–56 (1992).
Colostrum interferes with the production of PMN respiratory burst products in two ways, ascorbate and
uric acid.
145. Boldogh I, Liebenthal D, Hughes TK, Juelich TL, Georgiades JA, Kruzel ML, Stanton GJ.
Modulation of 4HNE-mediated signaling by proline-rich peptides from ovine colostrum. Journal of
Molecular Neuroscience, 20(2):125–134 (2003). Colostrinin down regulates lipid peroxidation, inhibits
glutathione depletion, and reduces intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This is one more
way that colostrum demonstrates antioxidant activity.
146. Wakabayashi H, Matsumoto H, Hashimoto K, Teraguchi S, Takase M, Hayasawa H. Inhibition of
iron/ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation by an N-terminal peptide of bovine lactoferrin and its acylated
derivatives. Bioscience, Biotechnology, Biochemistry, 63(5):955–957 (1999). Lactoferrin also plays an
important antioxidant role in colostrum by preventing lipid peroxidation.
147. Ulcova-Gallova Z, Fialova P, Krauz V. [Immunologic factors in human colostrum and rnilk.]
Casopis Lekaru Ceskych 133(9):27–276 (1994). Colostrum was found to contain IgG, IgM, IgD, IgA, slgA,
C3, C4, orosomucoid,prealbumin, alpha I-antitrypsin, alpha I-fetoprotein, alpha 2-macroglobulin,
haemopexin, haptoglobulin, beta 2-microglobulin, alpha 2-AP glycoprotein, and IgE.
148. Gutteridge JM, Smith A. Antioxidant protection by haemopexin of haem¬stimulated lipid
peroxidation. Biochemical Journal, 256:861–865 (1988). Haem is a low molecular weight form of iron that
is capable of taking part in oxygen radical reactions that can lead to the degradation of proteins, lipids,
carbohydrates, and DNA. Haemopexin can inhibit such oxidative reactions by as much as 90%.
149. Korhonen H, Syvaoja EL, Ahola-Luttila H, Sivela S, Kopola S, Husu J, Kosunen TU. Bactericidal
effect of bovine normal and immune serum, colostrum and milk against Helicobacter pylori. Journal of
Applied Bacteriology, 78(6):655–662 (1995). Helicobacter pylori is a major cause of gastritis and ulcers in
humans. Serum and colostrum from non-immunized Friesian cows were found to be highly bactericidal
against H. pylori. Post-colostral milk did not show any bactericidal effect against H. pylori.
150. Bitzan MM, Gold BD, Philpott DJ, Huesca M, Sherman PM, Karch H, Lissner R, Lingwood CA,
Karmali MA. Inhibition of Helicobacter pylori and Helicobacter mustelae binding to lipid receptors by
bovine colostrum. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 177(4):955–961 (1998). H. pylori and H. mustelae (a
gastric pathogen of ferrets) are both bound by lipid receptors (phosphatidylethanolamine,
gangliotetraosylceramide, and gangliotriaosyl-ceramide) in the gut, allowing them to carry out their
pathogenic activities. Bovine colostrum, however, was shown to prevent binding of the pathogens to
these lipid receptors even though there was no detectable anti-H. pylori antibody activity in the colostrum.
151. Wada T, Aiba Y, Shimizu K, Takagi A, Miwa T, Koga Y. The therapeutic effect of bovine lactoferrin
in the host infected with Helicobacter pylori. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, 34(3):238–243
(1999). Mice infected with H. pylori were given a daily dose of bovine lactoferrin for 2–4 weeks. Their
intestines were then examined for bacterial content. Numbers of H. pylori were reduced to 10% of prelactoferrin
levels and greatly decreased the numbers of H. pylori bound to the intestinal wall. Serum
antibody titer to H. pylori were reduced to practically zero, indicating that the immune response of the host
was no longer recognizing H. pylori infection. Therefore, it was deduced that lactoferrin has a direct
antibacterial effect on H. pylori infection and prevents binding of the pathogen to the intestinal lining.
152. Casswall TH, Nilsson HO, Bjorck L, Sjostedt S, Xu L, Nord CK, Boren T, Wadstrom T.
Hammarstrom L. Bovine anti-Helicobacter pylori antibodies for oral immunotherapy. Scandinavian Journal
of Gastroenterology, 37(12):1380–1385 (2002). Bovine Study showed colostrum prevented binding of H.
plyori.
153. Masson PL, Heremans JF, Dive JH. An iron-binding protein common to many external secretions.
Clinica Chimica Acta, 14:735 (1966). Lactoferrin inhibits the growth of siderophilic (iron-loving) bacteria
and Candida albicans.
154. Ogra PL, Losonsky GA, Fishaut M. Colostrum derived immunity and maternal neonatal interaction.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 409:82–92 (1983). Peyer’s patches are found throughout
the intestinal tract, and groups of similar immunoactive cells are found in the bronchial mucosa. Both the
intestinal and bronchial immunoactive cell groups respond to allergens, antigens, and pathogens by
neutralizing or destroying them. In newborns, these special cell groups are not immediately operative, but
protection is provided by a variety of immune factors from the mother’s colostrum. Antibodies found in
colostrum protect against Eschericia coli, Salmonella, Shigella, Vibrio cholera, Bacteriodes fragilis,
Streptococcus pneumoniae, Bordtella pertussis, Clostridium diphtheria, Clostridium tetani, Streptococcus
mutans, and Candida albicans.
155. Lilius EM, Marnila P. The role of colostral antibodies in prevention of microbial infections. Current
Opinion in Infectious Diseases, 14(3):295–200 (2001). Colostrum offers passive protection against a
variety of microbial pathogens in the form of specific immunoglobulin A, G, and antibodies. It is especially
effective in the prevention of various gastroenteric infections.
156. Moller W, Lissner R, Nitsche D. Use of bovine colostral milk as a preparation for the protection of
the liver. US Patent #5,710,132 (1998). Whole bovine colostrum or an immunoglobulin preparation from
colostrum are used to protect the liver from bacterial, viral, or protozoan diseases, such as E. coli,
rotavirus, or cryptosporidia infection, as well as detoxify the liver by removing toxic protein metabolites
such as ammonia. It can also be used to treat the effects of various liver diseases, such as liver
inflammation, viral hepatitis, fibrosis of the liver, cirrhosis of the liver, fatty liver, and so forth. These effects
include disturbances of the liver’s detoxification, excretory, conjugational, and synthesizing functions,
portal hypertension due to liver disease, and even coma due to liver failure. Supplementation can also be
used to relieve stress on the liver due to liver insufficiency as a result of liver parenchyma damage or viral
hepatitis, allowing the liver to heal and recover function.
157. Tavakkol A, Elder JT, Griffiths CE, Cooper KD, Talwar H, Fisher GJ, Keane KM, Foltin SK,
Voorhees JJ. Expression of growth hormone receptor, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and IGF-1
receptor mRNA and proteins in human skin. Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 99(3):343–349 (1992).
Receptors for growth hormone and IGF-1 were isolated from human skin, indicating that skin cells may
have the ability to react directly to growth hormone stimulation.
158. Hyde C, Hollier B, Anderson A, Harkin D, Upton Z. Insulin-like Growth Factors (IGF) and IGFBinding
Proteins Bound to Vitronectin Enhance Keratinocyte Protein Synthesis and Migration. Journal of
Investigative Dermatology, 122(5):1198–1206 (2004). IGF-2 binds directly to vitronectin, a component of
the extracellular skin matrix, to enhance protein synthesis and migration by skin cells in wound healing
and skin regeneration.
159. Bhora Y, Dunkin DJ, Batzri S, Aly HM, Bass BL, Sidawy AN, and Harmon JW. Effect of growth
factors on cell proliferation and epithelialization in human skin. Journal of Surgical Research, 59(2):236–
244 (1995). Fibroblast growth factor (FGF), IGF-I, and epithelial growth factor (EGF) are important factors
in healing skin wounds. EGF in particular is capable of initiating epithelial growth.
160. El Ghalbzouri A, Hensbergen P, Gibbs S, Kempenaar J, van der Schors R, Ponec M. Fibroblasts
facilitate re epithelialization in wounded human skin equivalents. Laboratory Investigation, 84(1):102-112
(2004). Re epithelialization of wounds begins with the migration of keratinocytes (skin cells) from the
edges of the wound. This migration is dependent on the interaction of the keratinocytes with dermal
fibroblasts and extracellular matrix. This migration is accelerated by EGF and keratinocyte growth factor.
161. Moller S, Jensen M, Svensson P, Skakkebaek NE. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in burn
patients. Burns, 17(4):279–281 (1991). Impaired wound healing in large burns is related to suppressed
levels of IGF-I in the burn area.
162. Kasemkijwattana C, Menetrey J, Bosch P, Somogyi G, Moreland MS, Fu FH, Buranapanitkit B,
Watkins SS, Huard J. Use of growth factors to improve muscle healing after strain injury. Clinical
Orthopedics, 370:272–285 (2000). Muscle injuries, such as strains, are common in athletes. The use of
growth factors, such as IGF-I, in treating such injuries is explored.
163. Sato K, Li Y, Foster W, Fukushima K, Badlani N, Adachi N, Usas A, Fu FH, Huard J. Improvement
of muscle healing through enhancement of muscle regeneration and prevention of fibrosis. Muscle &
Nerve, 28(3):355–372 (2003). IGF-I can improve muscle regeneration in injured muscle.
164. Liang L, Ding YQ. [Effect of cytokines on repair of tendon injury] Zhongguo Xiufu Chongjian Waike
Zazhi (Chinese) 14(5):283–285 (2000). Cytokines, such as the growth factors, can accelerate tendon
repair.
165. Molloy T, Wang Y, Murrell G. The roles of growth factors in tendon and ligament healing. Sports
Medicine, 33(5):381–394 (2003). The roles of five different growth factors, IGF-I, TGF-i3, vascular
endothelial growth factor (VEGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and basic fibroblast growth
factor (bFGF), in healing tendon and ligament injuries is explored. Each plays a different but vital role in
the process.
166. Roodman GD. Mechanisms of Bone Metastasis. Review Article. New England Journal of Medicine,
350:1655 (2004).
167. Sporn MB, Roberts AB, Shuill JH, Smith JM, Ward JM, Sodek J, Polypeptide transforming growth
factors isolated from bovine (colostrum) sources and used for wound healing in vivo. Science,
219(4590):1329–1331 (1983). TGF from cows (colostrum) was used to accelerate the healing of
experimental wounds in rats by increasing the accumulation of protein, collagen and DNA in the affected
area.
168. Mietens C, Keinhorst H, Hilpert H, Gerber H, Amster H, Pahud JJ. Treatment of infantile E. coli
gastroenteritis with specific bovine anti-E. coli milk immunoglobulins. European Journal of Pediatrics,
132:239–252 (1979).
169. Tacket CO, Losonsky G, Link H, Hoang Y, Guesry P, Hipert H, Levine MM. Protection by milk
immunoglobulin concentrate against oral challenge with enterogenic Escherichia coli. New England
Journal of Medicine, 318:1240–1241 (1988).
170. Tzipori CO, Binion SB, Bostwick E, Losonsky G, Roy MJ, Edelman R. Remission of diarrhoea due
to cryptosporidosis in an immunodeficient child treated with hyperimmune bovine colostrum. British
Medical Journal, 293:1276–1277 (1986).
171. Ebina T, Sato A, Umezu K, Ishida N, Ohyama S, Oizumi A, Kitaoka S, Suzuki H, Kunno T.
Prevention of rotavirus infection by oral administration of cow colostrum containing antihuman rotavirus
antibody. Medical Microbiology and Immunology, 174: 177–185 (1985).
172. Brussow H, Hipert H, Walther J, Sidoti J, Meitens C, Bachman P. Bovine milk immunoglobulins for
passive immunity to infantile rotavirus gastroenteritus. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 25:982–986
(1987).
173. Hilpert H, Brussow H, Meitens C, Sidoti J, Lerner L, Werchau H. Use of bovine milk concentrate
containing antibody to rotavirus to treat rotavirus gastroenteritis in infants. Journal of Infectious Diseases,
156:158–166 (1987).
174. Tacker CO, Binion SB, Bostwick E, Losonsky G, Roy MJ, Edelman R. Efficacy of bovine milk
immunoglobulin concentrate in preventing illness after Shigella flexneri challenge. American Journal of
Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 47:276–283 (1992)
175. Tyrell, D. Breast Feeding and Virus Infection: The Immunity of Infant Feeding. New York, Plenum
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